Stratified English-Language Fluency in Jordan: Perpetuating class division and limiting socioeconomic opportunity
AbstractToday, there exist two very different versions of Jordan vying for superiority: that which is rooted in an indigenous Arab culture and language, and that of Westernizing, wealthy, and influential minorities. English language proficiency and fluency is an important aspect of this widening gap. It can determine employment opportunity, social interaction, and acceptance into various spaces. Its causes, while more complex and difficult to untangle, can ultimately be traced to an education system rife with class-based hierarchy and unequal resource distribution as well as a postcolonial association of English as a language of superiority and, increasingly, a marker of class difference. Thus, rather than perpetuate the spread of English for nonessential purposes, Jordan should undertake educational reform projects focusing on an Arabic curriculum with universal standards across governorates and the public-private sector divide. Further, it should more efficiently enforce existing laws affirming the primacy of Arabic in public life and take steps to tighten loopholes such as tourism permits for private businesses.
Copyright (c) Hailey Burgess
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Authors are required to agree to the following license terms:
I grant to Boston College the right to include and publish the above-described submission in both the print and online versions of the journal, Elements. I will retain copyright ownership but hereby grant to Boston College the non-exclusive, world-wide, royalty-free right to use, copy, distribute, and display my submission in any format or medium for any educational, non-commercial purposes, including as part of the online and print journals. Boston College will apply the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License to all works published in Elements.
These rights include, without limitation, the right to maintain one or more copies of the submission in multiple formats for security, back-up, and preservation purposes, and to allow a third party to hold one or more copies solely for such purposes.
I represent and warrant that the submission is my/our original work, that I have the right to grant the permission in this agreement and that, to the best of my knowledge, the submission will not infringe upon anyone’s intellectual property rights. I represent and warrant and that the work is not libelous, does not violate any right of privacy or contain otherwise unlawful matter. I have obtained all necessary permissions to include in my/our submission any materials created or owned by third parties and any such third party material is clearly identified and acknowledged within the content of the submission. I agree to submit a copy of each such permission to the editors of Elements upon submission of the finalized version of the work for publication.
If the submission is based upon work that has been sponsored or supported by an organization or agency other than Boston College, I certify that I have fulfilled any right of review or other obligations required by any contract or agreement with such agency or organization.
I agree that others may review the work and that editors of Elements may edit the work, as they deem necessary after reviewing proposed revisions with me. Boston College will clearly identify my/our name(s) as the author(s) or owner(s) of the submission.
Nothing in this agreement shall be deemed to obligate Boston College to publish the submission.