Insurgence, Retreat, Reinvention

US For-Profit Higher Education

  • Richard Garrett Eduventures (Encoura)
Keywords: For-profit higher education, United States, adult students, regulation


The story of for-profit higher education in twenty-first century America opens new chapters on the possibilities and limits of for-profit sectors in mature higher education systems. This article summarizes dramatic for-profit enrollment growth in America in the 2000s, followed by regulatory pushback, consumer souring, and marked decline. Four possible for-profit futures are outlined.

Author Biography

Richard Garrett, Eduventures (Encoura)

Richard Garrett is chief research officer, Eduventures (Encoura), US. Email:

How to Cite
Garrett, R. (2022). Insurgence, Retreat, Reinvention. International Higher Education, (109), 20-22. Retrieved from