Unintended Effects of the Bologna Reforms
AbstractThe Bologna reform process has resulted in some unintended effects. At the system level, the four effects are: creating a dense network as an osmosis; stimulated reforms as a catalyst; shifting to vocational orientation; and structuring mass vs. elite degrees. At the institutional level, strengthening the central leadership, crosscutting the vertical boundaries among continental European universities, strengthening stakeholder influence.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Authors will be required to sign our standard License Ageement before publication.
A Word document containing the License Agreement is available for download here.