The Effectiveness and Efficiency of Distributed Online, Regional Online, and Regional Face-to-Face Training for Writing Assessment Raters

Edward W. Wolfe, Staci Matthews, Daisy Vickers


This study examined the influence of rater training and scoring context on training time, scoring time, qualifying rate, quality of ratings, and rater perceptions. 120 raters participated in the study and experienced one of three training contexts: (a) online training in a distributed scoring context, (b) online training in a regional scoring context, and (c) stand-up training in a regional context. After training, raters assigned scores to qualification sets, scored 400 student essays, and responded to a questionnaire that measured their perceptions of the effectiveness of, and satisfaction with, the training and scoring process, materials, and staff. The results suggest that the only clear difference on the outcomes for these three groups of raters concerned training time—online training was considerably faster. There were no clear differences between groups concerning qualification rate, rating quality, or rater perceptions.


large-scale assessment; scorer training; reliability; scoring; validity

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